Terminology used for building Microsoft Azure Virtual Networks

1. IP addresses:

There are two types of IP addresses assigned to resources in Azure: public and private.

Public IP Addresses allow Azure resources to communicate with Internet and other Azure public-facing services like Azure Redis Cache.

Private IP Addresses allows communication between resources in a virtual network, along with those connected through a VPN, without using an Internet-routable IP addresses.

Preferred IP Series for Intranets:

Small Network1: 192.168.0.X – for 28 Systems – IP Address Range = (Only last byte changes)

Small Network2: 192.168.1.X –for 28 Systems – IP Address Range = (Only last byte changes)

Large Network: 172.16.X.X – for 216 Systems – IP Address Range = https://www.linkedin.com/redir/invalid-link-page?url=172%2e16%2e0%2e0%2F16 (last 2 bytes change)

Very Large Network: 10.X.X.X – for 224 Systems – IP Address Range = https://www.linkedin.com/redir/invalid-link-page?url=10%2e0%2e0%2e0%2F8 (last 3 bytes change)

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation is a compact representation of an IP address and its associated routing prefix. The notation is constructed from an IP address, a slash (‘/’) character, and a decimal number. The number is the count of leading 1 bits in the routing mask, traditionally called the network mask.

Public IP Addresses

There are two methods in which an IP address is allocated to a public IP resource – dynamic or static.

  1. o In the dynamic allocation method the IP address is not allocated at the time of its creation. Instead, the public IP address is allocated when you start (or create) the associated resource (like a VM or load balancer). The IP address is released when you stop (or delete) the resource. This means the IP address can change.
  2. o In the static allocation method the IP address for the associated resource does not change. In this case an IP address is assigned immediately. It is released only when you delete the resource or change its allocation method to dynamic.

Public IP addresses allow Azure resources to communicate with Internet and Azure public-facing services such as Azure Redis Cache, Azure Event Hubs, SQL databases and Azure storage.

In Azure Resource Manager, a public IP address is a resource that has its own properties. You can associate a public IP address resource with any of the following resources:

    • Virtual machines (VM)
    • Internet-facing load balancers
    • VPN gateways
    • Application gateways

Note: The first 5 “static” public IP addresses in a region are free. This is applicable irrespective of the type of resource (VM or Load-balancer) to which the IP address is associated. All others are charged at $0.004/hr.

Private IP Addresses

  • IP address is allocated from the address range of the subnet to which the resource is attached.
  • The default allocation method is dynamic, where the IP address is automatically allocated from the resource’s subnet (using DHCP). This IP address can change when you stop and start the resource.
  • You can set the allocation method to static to ensure the IP address remains the same. In this case, you also need to provide a valid IP address that is part of the resource’s subnet.
  • Private IP addresses allow Azure resources to communicate with other resources in a virtual network or an on-premises network through a VPN gateway or ExpressRoute circuit, without using an Internet-reachable IP address.
  • In the Azure Resource Manager deployment model, a private IP address is associated to the following types of Azure resources:
    • VMs
    • Internal load balancers (ILBs)
    • Application gateways


Subnet is a range of IP addresses in the VNet, you can divide a VNet into multiple subnets for organization and security. VMs and PaaS role instances deployed to subnets (same or different) within a VNet can communicate with each other without any extra configuration. You can also configure route tables and NSGs to a subnet.

Based on number of system in a network, Subnet Mask is set.

https://www.linkedin.com/redir/invalid-link-page?url=255%2e255%2e255%2e0 – 28 Systems

https://www.linkedin.com/redir/invalid-link-page?url=255%2e255%2e0%2e0 – 216 Systems

https://www.linkedin.com/redir/invalid-link-page?url=255%2e0%2e0%2e0 – 224 Systems

3.Network Interface Card (NIC):

VMs communicate with other VMs and other resources on the network by using virtual network interface card (NIC). Virtual NICs configure VMs with private and optional public IP address. VMs can have more than one NIC for different network configurations.

Note: VMs can have more than one NIC adapter that links the VM with the virtual network. The number of NICs you can attach to a VM depends on its size. For example, a VM that is based on a D2 size can have 2 NICs, and a D4-based VM can have a maximum of 8 NICs. Multiple NICs configuration is common for virtual appliances that provide additional control of traffic in virtual networks.

4.Network Security Group (NSG):

You can create NSGs to control inbound and outbound access to network interfaces (NICs), VMs, and subnets. Each NSG contains one or more rules specifying whether or not traffic is approved or denied based on source IP address, source port, destination IP address, and destination port.

Some important things to keep in mind while implementing network security groups include:

  • By default you can create 100 NSGs per region per subscription. You can raise this limit to 400 by contacting Azure support.
  • You can apply only one NSG to a VNet, subnet, or NIC.
  • By default, you can have up to 200 rules in a single NSG. You can raise this limit to 500 by contacting Azure support.
  • You can apply an NSG to multiple resources.

5.Azure load balancers:

The Azure Load Balancer delivers high availability and network performance to your applications. It is a Layer 4 (TCP, UDP) load balancer that distributes incoming traffic among healthy service instances in cloud services or virtual machines defined in a load-balanced set.

6. Application Gateways:

Azure Application Gateway is a layer-7 load balancer. It provides failover, performance-routing HTTP requests between different servers, whether they are on the cloud or on-premises. Application Gateway provides many Application Delivery Controller (ADC) features including HTTP load balancing, cookie-based session affinity, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) offload, custom health probes, support for multi-site, and many others.

7. Traffic Manager:

Microsoft Azure Traffic Manager allows you to control the distribution of user traffic for service endpoints in different datacenters. Service endpoints supported by Traffic Manager include Azure VMs, Web Apps, and cloud services. You can also use Traffic Manager with external, non-Azure endpoints.

Traffic Manager uses the Domain Name System (DNS) to direct client requests to the most appropriate endpoint

8. VPN Gateways:

It is used to connect an Azure virtual network (VNet) to other Azure VNets or to an on-premises network. You need to assign a public IP address to its IP configuration to enable it to communicate with the remote network. Currently, you can only assign a dynamic public IP address to a VPN gateway.

9. Azure DNS:

The Domain Name System (DNS) enables clients to resolve user-friendly fully qualified domain names (FQDNs), such as www.adatum.com, to IP addresses. Azure Domain Name System (DNS) allows you to host your domains with your Azure apps. By hosting your domains in Azure, you can manage your DNS records by using your existing Azure subscription.

What is SharePoint and Role of SharePoint server in a LAN network

What is SharePoint?

SharePoint is an extensible web based platform which contains various products and technologies aimed at development of corporate portals. These products and technologies are referred to as SharePoint Products and Technologies.It allows individuals in an organization to easily create and manage their own collaborative Websites

  • Simplifies how people find and share information across boundaries and enabling better informed decisions
  • Seamlessly integrates with Windows and MS Office
    SharePoint not refer to a specific product or technology
  • Using the word Microsoft SharePoint is like using the word Microsoft Office

Role of SharePoint Server in a LAN Network.

SharePoint 2013

High level features of SharePoint Products and Technologies

  • Rich UI
    • Easy site editing and branding
    • Ribbon Interface
  • Better Site Provisioning
    • Better Versioning
    • Document Libraries
      • Document Column (Attachments)
      • Check in / Check out
      • Document Workflow (Approval)
      • Document View within browser
      • Permissions
  • Better Document Management
    • Quick development
    • No DBA required
  • Social Computing: Enables advanced collaboration within the SharePoint environment Supports Wikis, Blogs, Forums etc..
  • Automated Email and SMS Alerts
  • Built In Indexing & Search Engine
  • Seamless integration with Active Directory and other authentication providers
  • Integration of MS-Office Products
  • Reports in PDF, Word and other formats
  • Collaboration
    • Communication
    • Task Manager
  • Mobile Compatibility: Automatic Mobile Browser Redirection, Push notifications.

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

What is Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

SDLC Model

SDLC is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization. It consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process.

The following figure is a graphical representation of the various stages of a typical SDLC.
sdlc process

A typical Software Development life cycle consists of the following stages:

Stage 1: Planning and Requirement Analysis

Requirement analysis is the most important and fundamental stage in SDLC. It is performed by the senior members of the team with inputs from the customer, the sales department, market surveys and domain experts in the industry. This information is then used to plan the basic project approach and to conduct product feasibility study in the economical, operational, and technical areas.

Planning for the quality assurance requirements and identification of the risks associated with the project is also done in the planning stage. The outcome of the technical feasibility study is to define the various technical approaches that can be followed to implement the project successfully with minimum risks.

Stage 2: Defining Requirements

Once the requirement analysis is done the next step is to clearly define and document the product requirements and get them approved from the customer or the market analysts. This is done through .SRS. . Software Requirement Specification document which consists of all the product requirements to be designed and developed during the project life cycle.

Stage 3: Designing the product architecture

SRS is the reference for product architects to come out with the best architecture for the product to be developed. Based on the requirements specified in SRS, usually more than one design approach for the product architecture is proposed and documented in a DDS – Design Document Specification.

This DDS is reviewed by all the important stakeholders and based on various parameters as risk assessment, product robustness, design modularity , budget and time constraints , the best design approach is selected for the product.

A design approach clearly defines all the architectural modules of the product along with its communication and data flow representation with the external and third party modules (if any). The internal design of all the modules of the proposed architecture should be clearly defined with the minutest of the details in DDS.

Stage 4: Building or Developing the Product

In this stage of SDLC the actual development starts and the product is built. The programming code is generated as per DDS during this stage. If the design is performed in a detailed and organized manner, code generation can be accomplished without much hassle.

Developers have to follow the coding guidelines defined by their organization and programming tools like compilers, interpreters, debuggers etc are used to generate the code. Different high level programming languages such as C, C++, Pascal, Java, and PHP are used for coding. The programming language is chosen with respect to the type of software being developed.

Stage 5: Testing the Product

This stage is usually a subset of all the stages as in the modern SDLC models, the testing activities are mostly involved in all the stages of SDLC. However this stage refers to the testing only stage of the product where products defects are reported, tracked, fixed and retested, until the product reaches the quality standards defined in the SRS.

Stage 6: Deployment in the Market and Maintenance

Once the product is tested and ready to be deployed it is released formally in the appropriate market. Sometime product deployment happens in stages as per the organizations. business strategy. The product may first be released in a limited segment and tested in the real business environment (UAT- User acceptance testing).

Then based on the feedback, the product may be released as it is or with suggested enhancements in the targeting market segment. After the product is released in the market, its maintenance is done for the existing customer base.

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